View Routing Concepts in Swift
Back story of view routing in Swift. All code is conceptual and intended to illustrate concepts only.
It’s uncommon to see a backend web framework without a router. It makes sense. The web is built around URL’s that naturally branch out to routes.
Since the rise of frontend frameworks, routers have become a natural fit there too. Plus there is no shortage of choice for routers.
The function of a UI router is fairly simple:
- Formalise the separation of views components
- Compose components into a structure of routes and matchers
- Handle URL changes by matching it to a path of routes and returning the routes to a coordinator
That really is all there is to it, and it’s something we have been doing for a long time with coordinator and presenter patterns. The router is essentially a set of helper functions for declaring these patterns.
It is especially helpful when combined with state and side-effect separation. With very specific advantages:
- Because components are now isolated, their structure can easily be rearranged
- The concerns of view components are simplified to presentation of state, and generating actions from user input
- Services and APIs now only interact with the state store
- Each section of the application is easily testable AND replaceable
- Presentation behaviour can be changed based on device or screen size, or swapped out entirely
At this point you can probably guess the frontend web frameworks that implement these patterns (in part or whole): Elm, Cycle, Redux, React, Angular, Vue, etc. Familiarity with these frameworks is not necessary though, as we are concerned more with how to apply the concepts behind them in our swift applications.
Introducing Featherweight Router
The main main downside to implementing routers in iOS has been the amount of boilerplate code it requires. I have repeated the pattern often enough that it warranted moving into a project of it’s own. Hence I introduce to you the Featherweight Router project. It was designed to be:
- Simple - it doesn’t need to be complicated to be useful and powerful.
- Purposefully has no dependencies - the routing layer should be lightweight and easily replaced
- Not concerned with State - Although it’s recommended to use a Unidirectional State Flow implementation such as ReSwift, the State Store should remain separate, replaceable and testable.
- Not tied to presentation - The router does control presentation, but is not concerned with HOW it is presented. You are free to use UIKit, AppKit, TVKit, etc.
- Extendable - The base router type does not implement any route handling behaviour, it’s all done through Router creators.
Featherweight Router doesn’t make any decisions for you outside of declaring a route structure. You still need to choose a UI framework, how to handle route changes and where to store state.
Want to learn more? Check out:
- The code heavy tl;dr introduction
- The Featherweight Router project on GitHub
My sources of inspiration:
- The Coordinator by Soroush Khanlou
- Improve your iOS Architecture with FlowControllers by Krzysztof Zabłocki
- URLNavigator by Jeon Suyeol
- Functional View Controllers by Chris Eidhof
With a special thank you to every person promoting the use of solid functional patterns.